Venous thromboembolism (VTE) which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a moderately common disease especially in elderly population with high rate of recurrence and complications. Evidence is accumulating that VTE is not restricted to coagulation system and immune system appears to be involved in formation and resolution of thrombus. The present study was aimed at reviewing current evidences on immune system abnormalities such as alterations in cytokines, chemokines and immune cells. Also, current evidences suggest that; a, inflammation in general functions as a double-edged sword, b, inflammation can be both a cause and a consequence of VTE, and c, current anti-coagulation therapies are not well-equipped with the capacity to selectively inhibit inflammatory cells and pathways. Applying such inferences for selective pharmacological targeting of immune mediators in VTE and thereby for adoption of higher effective anti-thromboinflammatory strategies, either therapeutic or prophylactic, is henceforth to be considered as the line of research for future.