Mortality and morbidity in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinaemia

Abolhassani H1
Hirbod-Mobarakeh A2
Shahinpour S2
Panahi M2
Mohammadinejad P2
Mirminachi B2
Shakari MS2
Samavat B2
Aghamohammadi A


X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is a genetic disorder characterised by a defect in the generation of mature B cells, lack of antibodies production, and susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. Understanding of the risk factors responsible for morbidity and mortalityin these patients can help in a better management of this disorder. However, there is a lack of specific studies in the literature regarding themorbidity and mortality of XLA patients. This study is designed to evaluate morbidities and mortality and survival rates in Iranian patients with XLA diagnosis during the past 20 years.


We have registered the clinical data of the XLA patients and followed them up until 2010. At the time of diagnosis, a four-page questionnaire including complete medical information was filled out for all patients. Follow-up information was gathered either by reviewing thepatients' hospital records or regularly visiting the patients.


Among 41 patients, 26.8% died during the follow up period. All of the complications before the initiation of treatment such as pneumonia, otitis media and diarrhoea were reduced after immunoglobulin replacement, except sinusitis and conjunctivitis. There were significant associations between some immunological and clinical characteristics such as lymphocyte subsets, consanguinity marriage and mortality.


Despite recent advances in the treatment of XLA, these patients still suffer from severe complications. Associations between poor prognosis and clinical and some immunological characteristics of the patients may help physicians to select poor prognoses patients at higher risk of mortality to develop prevention strategies for them.


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