Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and heterogeneous clinical manifestations. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical and immunological features of pediatric patients with CVID.
We reviewed the records of 69 children diagnosed under age of 16 years with CVID (35 males and 34 females).
By the year 2008, 15 patients (21%) had died. The total follow-up period was 333 patient-years. The mean diagnostic time between onset and diagnosis in our patient group was 4.40 years. The overall rate of consanguineous marriages was 58%. 10 patients had a positive family history of immunodeficiency. At the time of diagnosis, the mean levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA levels were 286.86, 39.92, and 18.39 mg/dl, respectively which were below the normal levels for age. All of the patients presented with infectious diseases at the time of onset, the most common of which were pneumonia, diarrhea and sinusitis. Acute and recurrent infections were also found in almost all of the patients, particularly involving respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. The most common infections during follow-up period were pneumonia (31.9%), acute diarrhea (18.8%), acute sinusitis (18.8%), and otitis media (14.5%). Post-diagnosis survival was estimated to be 79% during the first five years. The survival rate was not shown to be influenced by delayed diagnosis, serum levels of IgG and B-lymphocyte count at the time of diagnosis.
Any child with a history of recurrent infections, decreased levels of serum immunoglobulin isotypes and consanguineous parents should be considered as a CVID patient.